Burundi is ranked among the top three poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated country in Africa. With an area of 27,834 km2, of which 1725 km2 occupied by water, its population according to data from the 3rd General Census of 2008 was estimated at 8,275,177 inhabitants, of whom 51% are women and 46% of young people under 15 years.
The average population density is 317 inhabitants / km2 with an annual growth of 3 %.
The literacy rate is low, about 59.3 %. The fertility rate is 6.4 children per woman and the birth rate is 1.72 %0.
The national economy is based primarily on agriculture to 35 % and 90 % of the population live in rural areas.
Agricultural land per person is only 0.24 hectares. In 2006, the Gross National Product per capita was at 100USD while 155 USD before 1993.
Access to services and information of quality on SRH / FP is a matter of human rights especially for young people.
Moreover, at the International Conference on Population and Development ICPD 1994 and 1995 in Cairo, Egypt , Governments committed to meet the needs of adolescent on information, services and advice of quality in the field of SRH to encourage them to pursue education, to develop their full potential and to prevent STIs , HIV / AIDS and unwanted pregnancies.
The Burundi government materialized this concern through the integration into the National Reproductive Health Programme a component targeting adolescents and young people in order to improve their SRH.
In Burundi and elsewhere in the developing countries, sexual initiation among youth comes before acquiring adequate information on the potential risks regarding their SRH one hand and, on personal protection safe strategies and access to services SSR on the other.
In addition, the likelihood of condom and contraceptives use is greater as the onset of sexual activity was the later.
In terms of family planning and contraception, the Burundian population is generally pro -natalist with a total fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman in a context of high illiteracy, especially of women, which is a brake to family planning.
In fact, concerning the family planning outcome after twenty years since the program began in 1987, it is clear that the results achieved remain low.
The contraceptive coverage rate evolves very slowly considering the following numbers: It was 5.4 % in 2003, 6.5% in 2004, 8.5% in 2005, 7.3% in 2006 to 21.9 % in 2011 and 25% in 2012. It takes a contraceptive prevalence of 40% to stabilize the population growth of a country. It is therefore quite clear that Burundi needs are less satisfied as it is the case in many African countries. In fact, it is in Sub-Saharan countries where we denote higher levels of unmet need (63%) in Africa. These levels are still increasing highlighting the ever increasing interest to limit family size (Singh et al. 2003).
According EDSB II 2010, although almost all women (97%) and men (98%) know about a contraceptive method, only 13 % of women aged 15 to 49 years used at the time of the survey, a contraceptive method. In 11 % of cases, women used a modern method especially injectables (6%), and in 2% of cases , a traditional method.
This is among the urban women (35%), those of Mayor Bujumbura (37%), those with a secondary level of education or higher (41%) and those living in households classified in the highest quintile rich (33 %) where the contraceptive prevalence is highest.
When asked whether they wanted to have another child, a third of women (32%) said they don’t want to do more. According to the results, 31% of women have unmet need for family planning. If these women could meet these needs, the contraceptive use rate could reach 54%.
2. Evolution of contraception in Burundi.
Concerning SRH/FP, it is unfortunate that young people of Burundi are vulnerable while their vulnerability to major health challenges such as HIV was already high.
Various vulnerable groups were highlighted but comes in the first place the woman who is most vulnerable and especially those who have no other information on means of contraception. And in general young people especially marginalized adolescents as children of the street, refugees, orphans and migrants who are unlikely to receive information on improving sexual and reproductive health strategies.
Identified by a group of WHO studies, we note that the youth belonging to the following subgroups are probably more vulnerable than others:
• The racial, religious or ethnic minorities;
• Young people who have experienced significant emotional loss, including bereavement, disunity home or rejection by their parents, children in institutions;
• Young people with physical or intellectual disability due to illness;
• Young people whose parents suffer from chronic physical or mental illness;
• Young victims of physical or emotional abuse or sexual abuse;
• Homeless, unemployed and disadvantaged;
• Pregnant adolescents and very young parents.
From this, we conclude that many young Burundians are very vulnerable given the conditions prevailing in the country:
Among children under 18 years, 13% are orphans. These children have lost either their father or mother or both. As expected, the proportion of orphans is increasing rapidly with the age of the child, from 2 % in less than 2 years to 31 % among children aged 15-17 years.
This proportion varies little different socio -economic characteristics. However, it is slightly higher in Bujumbura Mairie (17%) and among the poorest households (18%) than in other categories.
Note also the large number of young victims of harmful effects of the crisis that has shaken Burundi, young victims of GBV (an average of 110-120 per month received only at SERUKA Centre), yet young people living in displaced camps or in the various villages of peace, the disabled, the unemployed, students from high school and college, kids from the street to name but a few, in short a multitude of vulnerable youth regarding SRH.
Absolute necessity of intervention in Burundi.
Facing a rapid population growth, high fertility, early marriage, increasing poverty, ignorance of their rights particularly sexual and reproductive especially for young people, an arsenal of reasons (among which is the low level of education) creating a too many vulnerable young people regarding SRH; at center of which is the young Burundian woman. Rumors about contraceptive methods, low involvement of men in family planning, no one could make a deaf ear to problems directly and indirectly related to overcrowding and poor knowledge of SRH/FP.
BURUNDI YOWLI is committed to address the challenges facing various obstacles and to partner with various national and international organizations and so deeply involves itself in SRH/FP and finally benefit the Burundi of the enormous advantages from SRH/FP which are namely under three main groups:
- The reproductive rights and gender equity
- The economic benefits 13
Moreover, countless consequences of overpopulation for a country like Burundi, namely land conflicts, criminality, promiscuity, serious crime, sexual wandering, begging etc. should challenge everyone to give their best to reduce the problems associated with a low level of promotion of SRH/PF.
2. PLANNED ACTIVITIES BY YOWLI BURUNDI
“Improving the health of youth and adolescents in general and sexual and reproductive health in particular, to prepare youth and adolescents to a responsible parenthood, and even beyond sustainable development.”
Strategic Thrust I: Establishment of youth-friendly services.
1. Meet the needs of adolescents and young people in information related to SRH/FP;
2. Provide access to SRH/FP to adolescents and young people;
3. Encourage adolescents and young people to adopt responsible sexual behavior.
Strategies for implementation
• Organize mass awareness campaigns (down field visit in communities; media emissions, adverts and newspapers on SRH / FP) targeting adolescents and young people;
• Organize training workshops for leaders and discussion groups on SRH / FP for adolescents and vulnerable young people;
• Provide SRH / FP services to adolescents and young people;
• Organize campaigns of information, education and communication / communication for behavioral change
Strategic Thrust II: Burundi women teenage center of activities
1. Meet the needs of adolescents on SRH / FP ;
2. Increase access to information and services that meet the specific needs of disadvantaged and vulnerable girls SRH / FP;
3. Conducting sessions of information, education and communication / communication for behavioral change in adolescent girls to curb the phenomenon of unwanted pregnancies;
Strategies to build out (for implementation)
· Awareness campaigns in adolescent girls from school and outside it,
· Create centers providing SRH/FP services,
· Train leaders and discussion groups among adolescent girls that will continue to educate others in their communities,
· Create women's networks for SSR/PF in the various settings (school and non-school) to popularize SRH/FP
· Awareness and training of community leaders among parents and other educators to recognize the actual needs of the SRH/FP teens;
· Organize recycling activities for all trained leaders: girls, managers of centers providing SRH/FP services, women's networks, and community leaders responsible for education, youth networks.
Strategic Priority 3: Increase awareness and community mobilization for SRH / FP
1. Include all social and all sections of the community actors in the activities of SRH/FP;
2. Involve the whole community to eliminate early marriage and unwanted pregnancies and to introduce delayed childbearing;
Strategies for implementation
· Conduct mass awareness campaigns targeting various members of the community: political and administrative leaders, religious groups, leaders of youth associations, community discussion groups, etc. on the use of SRH/FP advantages;
· Advocacy for the introduction of late marriage: delaying the minimum age for marriage,
Conduct anti-early-marriage campaigns, unwanted pragnanencies, too early, too many and too close anti-pregnancy campaigns;